Normal modal logic

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In logic, a normal modal logic is a set L of modal formulas such that L contains:

and it is closed under:

The smallest logic satisfying the above conditions is called K. Most modal logics commonly used nowadays (in terms of having philosophical motivations), e.g. C. I. Lewis's S4 and S5, are extensions of K. However a number of deontic and epistemic logics, for example, are non-normal, often because they give up the Kripke schema.


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