# Hammer projection

The **Hammer projection** is an equal-area map projection described by Ernst Hammer in 1892. Using the same 2:1 elliptical outer shape as the Mollweide projection, Hammer intended to reduce distortion toward the outer limbs, where it is extreme in the Mollweide.

## Development

Directly inspired by the Aitoff projection, Hammer suggested the use of the equatorial form of the Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection instead of Aitoff's use of the azimuthal equidistant projection:

where and are the x and y components of the equatorial Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection. Written out explicitly:

The inverse is calculated with the intermediate variable

The longitude and latitudes can then be calculated by

where is the longitude from the central meridian and is the latitude.^{[1]}^{[2]}

Visually, the Aitoff and Hammer projections are very similar. The Hammer has seen more use because of its equal-area property. The Mollweide projection is another equal-area projection of similar aspect, though with straight parallels of latitude, unlike the Hammer's curved parallels.

### Briesemeister

William A. Briesemeister presented a variant of the Hammer in 1953. In this version, the central meridian is set to 10°E, the coordinate system is rotated to bring the 45°N parallel to the center, and the resulting map is squashed horizontally and reciprocally stretched vertically to achieve a 1.75:1.0 aspect ratio instead of the 2:1 of the Hammer. The purpose is to present the land masses more centrally and with lower distortion.^{[3]}

### Nordic

Before projecting to Hammer, John Bartholomew rotated the coordinate system to bring the 45° north parallel to the center, leaving the prime meridian as the central meridian. He called this variant the "Nordic" projection.^{[3]}

## See also

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## References

- ↑
*Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections*, John P. Snyder, 1993, pp. 130–133, ISBN 0-226-76747-7. - ↑ Weisstein, Eric W. "Hammer–Aitoff Equal-Area Projection." From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource
- ↑
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