Akra–Bazzi method

Template:No footnotes In computer science, the Akra–Bazzi method, or Akra–Bazzi theorem, is used to analyze the asymptotic behavior of the mathematical recurrences that appear in the analysis of divide and conquer algorithms where the sub-problems have substantially different sizes. It is a generalization of the well-known master theorem, which assumes that the sub-problems have equal size.

The formula

The Akra–Bazzi method applies to recurrence formulas of the form

$T(x)=g(x)+\sum _{i=1}^{k}a_{i}T(b_{i}x+h_{i}(x))\qquad {\text{for }}x\geq x_{0}.$ The conditions for usage are:

The asymptotic behavior of T(x) is found by determining the value of p for which $\sum _{i=1}^{k}a_{i}b_{i}^{p}=1$ and plugging that value into the equation

$T(x)\in \Theta \left(x^{p}\left(1+\int _{1}^{x}{\frac {g(u)}{u^{p+1}}}du\right)\right)$ An example

{\begin{aligned}T(x)&\in \Theta \left(x^{p}\left(1+\int _{1}^{x}{\frac {g(u)}{u^{p+1}}}\,du\right)\right)\\&=\Theta \left(x^{2}\left(1+\int _{1}^{x}{\frac {u^{2}}{u^{3}}}\,du\right)\right)\\&=\Theta (x^{2}(1+\ln x))\\&=\Theta (x^{2}\log x).\end{aligned}} Significance

The Akra–Bazzi method is more useful than most other techniques for determining asymptotic behavior because it covers such a wide variety of cases. Its primary application is the approximation of the runtime of many divide-and-conquer algorithms. For example, in the merge sort, the number of comparisons required in the worst case, which is roughly proportional to its runtime, is given recursively as $T(1)=0$ and

$T(n)=T\left(\left\lfloor {\frac {1}{2}}n\right\rfloor \right)+T\left(\left\lceil {\frac {1}{2}}n\right\rceil \right)+n-1$ 