# Matrix similarity

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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} Template:Distinguish In linear algebra, two n-by-n matrices A and B are called similar if

$B=P^{-1}AP$ for some invertible n-by-n matrix P. Similar matrices represent the same linear operator under two different bases, with P being the change of basis matrix.

A transformation $A\mapsto P^{-1}AP$ is called a similarity transformation or conjugation of the matrix A. In the general linear group, similarity is therefore the same as conjugacy, and similar matrices are also called conjugate; however in a given subgroup H of the general linear group, the notion of conjugacy may be more restrictive than similarity, since it requires that P can be chosen to lie in H.

## Properties

Similarity is an equivalence relation on the space of square matrices.

Similar matrices share any properties that are really properties of the represented linear operator:

Because of this, for a given matrix A, one is interested in finding a simple "normal form" B which is similar to A—the study of A then reduces to the study of the simpler matrix B. For example, A is called diagonalizable if it is similar to a diagonal matrix. Not all matrices are diagonalizable, but at least over the complex numbers (or any algebraically closed field), every matrix is similar to a matrix in Jordan form. Neither of these forms is unique (diagonal entries or Jordan blocks may be permuted) so they are not really normal forms; moreover their determination depends on being able to factor the minimal or characteristic polynomial of A (equivalently to find its eigenvalues). The rational canonical form does not have these drawbacks: it exists over any field, is truly unique, and it can be computed using only arithmetic operations in the field; A and B are similar if and only if they have the same rational canonical form. The rational canonical form is determined by the elementary divisors of A; these can be immediately read off from a matrix in Jordan form, but they can also be determined directly for any matrix by computing the Smith normal form, over the ring of polynomials, of the matrix (with polynomial entries) XInA (the same one whose determinant defines the characteristic polynomial). Note that this Smith normal form is not a normal form of A itself; moreover it is not similar to XInA either, but obtained from the latter by left and right multiplications by different invertible matrices (with polynomial entries).