# Course-of-values recursion

Template:No footnotes In computability theory, course-of-values recursion is a technique for defining number-theoretic functions by recursion. In a definition of a function f by course-of-values recursion, the value of f(n+1) is computed from the sequence $\langle f(1),f(2),\ldots ,f(n)\rangle$ . The fact that such definitions can be converted into definitions using a simpler form of recursion is often used to prove that functions defined by course-of-values recursion are primitive recursive.

This article uses the convention that the natural numbers are the set {1,2,3,4,...}.

## Definition and examples

The factorial function n! is recursively defined by the rules

0! = 1,
(n+1)! = (n+1)*(n!).

This recursion is a primitive recursion because it computes the next value (n+1)! of the function based on the value of n and the previous value n! of the function. On the other hand, the function Fib(n), which returns the nth Fibonacci number, is defined with the recursion equations

Fib(0) = 0,
Fib(1) = 1,
Fib(n+2) = Fib(n+1) + Fib(n).

In order to compute Fib(n+2), the last two values of the Fib function are required. Finally, consider the function g defined with the recursion equations

g(0) = 0,
$g(n+1)=\sum _{i=0}^{n}g(i)^{n-i}$ .

To compute g(n+1) using these equations, all the previous values of g must be computed; no fixed finite number of previous values is sufficient in general for the computation of g. The functions Fib and g are examples of functions defined by course-of-values recursion.

In general, a function f is defined by course-of-values recursion if there is a fixed primitive recursive function h such that for all n,

$f(n)=h(n,\langle f(0),f(1),\ldots ,f(n-1)\rangle )$ where $\langle f(0),f(1),\ldots ,f(n-1)\rangle$ is a Gödel number encoding the indicated sequence. In particular

$f(0)=h(0,\langle \rangle ),$ provides the initial value of the recursion. The function h might test its first argument to provide explicit initial values, for instance for Fib one could use the function defined by

$h(n,s)={\begin{cases}n&{\text{if }}n<2\\s[n-2]+s[n-1]&{\text{if }}n\geq 2\end{cases}}$ where s[i] denotes extraction of the element i from an encoded sequence s; this is easily seen to be a primitive recursive function (assuming an appropriate Gödel numbering is used).

## Equivalence to primitive recursion

In order to convert a definition by course-of-values recursion into a primitive recursion, an auxiliary (helper) function is used. Suppose that one wants to have

$f(n)=h(n,\langle f(0),f(1),\ldots ,f(n-1)\rangle )$ .

To define f using primitive recursion, first define the auxiliary course-of-values function that should satisfy

${\bar {f}}(n)=\langle f(0),f(1),\ldots ,f(n-1)\rangle .$ ${\bar {f}}(0)=\langle \rangle$ ,
${\bar {f}}(n+1)={\mathit {append}}(n,{\bar {f}}(n),h(n,{\bar {f}}(n))),$ where append(n,s,x) computes, whenever s encodes a sequence of length n, a new sequence t of length n + 1 such that t[n] = x and t[i] = s[i] for all i < n (again this is a primitive recursive function, under the assumption of an appropriate Gödel numbering).

Given ${\bar {f}}$ , the original function f can be defined by $f(n)={\bar {f}}(n+1)[n]$ , which shows that it is also a primitive recursive function.

## Application to primitive recursive functions

In the context of primitive recursive functions, it is convenient to have a means to represent finite sequences of natural numbers as single natural numbers. One such method, Gödel's encoding, represents a sequence $\langle n_{1},n_{2},\ldots ,n_{k}\rangle$ as

$\prod _{i=1}^{k}p_{i}^{n_{i}}$ ,

where pi represent the ith prime. It can be shown that, with this representation, the ordinary operations on sequences are all primitive recursive. These operations include

• Determining the length of a sequence,
• Extracting an element from a sequence given its index,
• Concatenating two sequences.

Using this representation of sequences, it can be seen that if h(m) is primitive recursive then the function

$f(n)=h(\langle f(1),f(2),\ldots ,f(n-1)\rangle )$ .

is also primitive recursive.

When the natural numbers are taken to begin with zero, the sequence $\langle n_{1},n_{2},\ldots ,n_{k}\rangle$ is instead represented as

$\prod _{i=1}^{k}p_{i}^{(n_{i}+1)}$ ,