Perfect authentic cadence (V–I with roots in the bass parts and tonic in the highest voice of the final chord): ii–V–I progression in C major, four-part harmony (Benward & Saker 2003, p.90.).

In Western musical theory, a cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling") is, "a melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of resolution [finality or pause]."[1] A harmonic cadence is a progression of (at least) two chords that concludes a phrase, section, or piece of music.[2] A rhythmic cadence is a characteristic rhythmic pattern that indicates the end of a phrase.[3] A cadence is labeled more or less "weak" or "strong" depending on its sense of finality. While cadences are usually classified by specific chord or melodic progressions, the use of such progressions does not necessarily constitute a cadence—there must be a sense of closure, as at the end of a phrase. Harmonic rhythm plays an important part in determining where a cadence occurs.

Cadences are strong indicators of the tonic or central pitch of a passage or piece.[1] Edward Lowinsky proposed that the cadence was the "cradle of tonality."[4]

## Classification of cadences in common practice tonality with examples

{{#invoke:Multiple image|render}} In music of the common practice period, cadences are divided into four types according to their harmonic progression: authentic, plagal, half, and deceptive. Typically, phrases end on authentic or half cadences, and the terms plagal and deceptive refer to motion that avoids or follows a phrase-ending cadence. Each cadence can be described using the Roman numeral system of naming chords:

• Authentic (also closed, standard or perfect) cadence: V to I (or V–I). A seventh above the root is often added to create V7. The The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians says, "This cadence is a microcosm of the tonal system, and is the most direct means of establishing a pitch as tonic. It is virtually obligatory as the final structural cadence of a tonal work."[1] The phrase perfect cadence is sometimes used as a synonym for authentic cadence, but can also have a more precise meaning depending on the chord voicing:
Beethoven – Piano Sonata, Op. 13 perfect authentic cadence.[5]
• Perfect authentic cadence: The chords are in root position; that is, the roots of both chords are in the bass, and the tonic (the same pitch as root of the final chord) is in the highest voice of the final chord. A perfect cadence is a progression from V to I in major keys, and V to i in minor keys. This is generally the strongest type of cadence and often found at structurally defining moments.[6] "This strong cadence achieves complete harmonic and melodic closure."[7]
• Imperfect authentic cadence (IAC), best divided into three separate categories:
• 1. Root position IAC: similar to a PAC, but the highest voice is not the tonic ("do" or the root of the tonic chord).
• 2. Inverted IAC: similar to a PAC, but one or both chords is inverted.
• 3. Leading tone IAC: the V chord is replaced with the viio/subV chord (but the cadence still ends on I).
• Evaded cadence: VTemplate:Su to ITemplate:Su.[8] Because the seventh must fall step wise, it forces the cadence to resolve to the less stable first inversion chord. Usually to achieve this a root position V changes to a VTemplate:Su right before resolution, thereby "evading" the cadence.

{{#invoke:Multiple image|render}}

Phrygian cadence in Bach's Schau Lieber Gott Chorale.[9]
• Half cadence ("'Imperfect Cadence'" or semicadence): any cadence ending on V, whether preceded by V of V, ii, vi, IV, or I—or any other chord. Because it sounds incomplete or suspended, the half cadence is considered a weak cadence that calls for continuation.[10]
• Phrygian half-cadence: a half cadence from iv6 to V in minor, so named because the semitonal motion in the bass (flat sixth degree to fifth degree) resembles the semitone heard in the ii–I of the ancient (15th century) cadence in the Phrygian mode. Due to its being a survival from modal Renaissance harmony this cadence gives an archaic sound, especially when preceded by v (v-iv6-V).[11] A characteristic gesture in Baroque music, the Phrygian cadence often concluded a slow movement immediately followed by a faster one.[12] With the addition of motion in the upper part to the sixth degree, it becomes the Landini cadence.[1]

## In medieval and Renaissance polyphony

Clausula vera cadence from Lassus's Beatus homo, mm. 34–35[24]  ). Note the half step in one voice and the whole step in the other.
Three voice clausula vera from Palestrina's Magnificat Secundi Toni: Deposuit potentes, mm. 27–28[24]  .

Medieval and Renaissance cadences are based upon dyads rather than chords. The first theoretical mention of cadences comes from Guido of Arezzo's description of the occursus in his Micrologus, where he uses the term to mean where the two lines of a two-part polyphonic phrase end in a unison.

A clausula or clausula vera ("true close") is a dyadic or intervallic, rather than chordal or harmonic, cadence. In a clausula vera two voices approach an octave or unison through stepwise motion.[24] This is also in contrary motion. In three voices the third voice often adds a falling fifth creating a cadence similar to the authentic cadence in tonal music.[24]

According to Carl Dahlhaus, "as late as the 13th century the half step was experienced as a problematic interval not easily understood, as the irrational remainder between the perfect fourth and the ditone:

${\displaystyle \textstyle {{{4 \over 3} \over \left({9 \over 8}\right)^{2}}={256 \over 243}}\,\!}$[25]

In a melodic half step, listeners of the time perceived no tendency of the lower tone toward the upper, or the upper toward the lower. The second tone was not the 'goal' of the first. Instead, musicians avoided the half step in clausulas because, to their ears, it lacked clarity as an interval. Beginning in the 13th century cadences begin to require motion in one voice by half step and the other a whole step in contrary motion. In the 14th century, an ornamentation of this, with an escape tone, became known as the Landini cadence, after the composer, who used them prodigiously.

Clausula vera for comparison  ).

A plagal cadence was found occasionally as an interior cadence, with the lower voice in two-part writing moving up a perfect fifth or down a perfect fourth.[26] A pause in one voice may also be used as a weak interior cadence.[26]

Pause as weak interior cadence from Lassus's Qui vult venire post me, mm. 3–5  .

In counterpoint an evaded cadence is one where one of the voices in a suspension does not resolve as expected, and the voices together resolved to a consonance other than an octave or unison[27] (a perfect fifth, a sixth, or a third).

In the Classical period, composers often drew out the authentic cadences at the ends of sections; the cadence's dominant chord might take up a measure or two, especially if it contained the resolution of a suspension remaining from the chord preceding the dominant. During these two measures, the solo instrument (in a concerto) often played a trill on the supertonic (the fifth of the dominant chord); although supertonic and subtonic trills had been common in the Baroque era, they usually lasted only a half measure (e.g., the subtonic trill in the final cadence from Bach's Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140).  Extended cadential trills were by far most frequent in Mozart's music, and although they were also found in early Romantic music, their use was restricted chiefly to piano concerti (and to a lesser extent, violin concerti) because they were most easily played and most effective on the piano and violin; the cadential trill and resolution would be generally followed by an orchestral coda. Because the music generally became louder and more dramatic leading up to it, a cadence was used for climactic effect, and was often embellished by Romantic composers. Later on in the Romantic era, however, other dramatic virtuosic movements were often used to close sections instead.

## Jazz

Ascending diminished seventh chord half-step cadence on C.[28]
Descending diminished seventh chord half-step cadence on C.[28]

In jazz a cadence is often referred to as a turnaround, chord progressions that lead back and resolve to the tonic (for example, the ii-V-I turnaround). Turnarounds may be used at any point and not solely before the tonic.

Half-step cadences are "common in jazz"[29] if not "cliché."[30] For example, the ascending diminished seventh chord half-step cadence, which—using a secondary diminished seventh chord—creates momentum between two chords a major second apart (with the diminished seventh in between).[28] The descending diminished seventh chord half-step cadence is assisted by two common tones.[28]

## Popular music

Popular music uses the cadences of the common practice period and jazz, with the same or different voice leading.

Rhythmic cadence at the end of the first phrase from Bach's Brandenburg Concerto no. 3 in G Major, BMV 1048, I, m. 1–2.   with pitches or   with unpitched percussion.

Rhythmic cadences often feature a final note longer than the prevailing note values and this often follows a characteristic rhythmic pattern repeated at the end of the phrase,[3] both demonstrated in the Bach example pictured.

## References

1. Don Michael Randel (1999). The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians, p. 105. ISBN 0-674-00084-6.
2. Benward & Saker (2003). Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, p. 359. 7th ed. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
3. Benward & Saker (2003). p. 91.
4. Judd, Cristle Collins (1998). "Introduction: Analyzing Early Music", Tonal Structures of Early Music, Template:Page needed. (ed. Judd). New York: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8153-2388-3.
5. White, John D. (1976). The Analysis of Music, p.34. ISBN 0-13-033233-X.
6. Thomas Benjamin, Johann Sebastian Bach (2003). The Craft of Tonal Counterpoint, p.284. ISBN 0-415-94391-4.
7. Caplin, William E. (2000). Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, p.51. ISBN 0-19-514399-X.
8. Darcy and Hepokoski (2006). Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata, p.. ISBN 0-19-514640-9. "the unexpected motion of a cadential dominant chord to a I6 (instead of the normatively cadential I)"
9. White (1976), p.38.
10. Jonas, Oswald (1982). Introduction to the Theory of Heinrich Schenker (1934: Das Wesen des musikalischen Kunstwerks: Eine Einführung in Die Lehre Heinrich Schenkers), p.24. Trans. John Rothgeb. ISBN 0-582-28227-6.
11. Finn Egeland Hansen (2006). Layers of musical meaning, p.208. ISBN 87-635-0424-3.
12. Randel, Don Michael (2003). The Harvard Dictionary of Music, p.130. ISBN 0-674-01163-5.
13. White (1976), p.129-130.
14. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}
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17. Foote, Arthur (2007). Modern Harmony in its Theory and Practice, p. 93. ISBN 1-4067-3814-X.
18. Owen, Harold (2000). Music Theory Resource Book, p.132. ISBN 0-19-511539-2.
19. Kennedy, Michael, ed. (2004). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music, p.116. ISBN 0-19-860884-5.
20. "Medial cadence." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 23 Jul. 2013.
21. Berger, Karol (1987). Musica Ficta: Theories of Accidental Inflections in Vocal Polyphony from Marchetto da Padova to Gioseffo Zarlino, p.148. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54338-X.
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24. Benward & Saker (2009). Music in Theory and Practice: Volume II, p.13. Eighth Edition. ISBN 978-0-07-310188-0.
25. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}
26. Benward & Saker (2009), p.14.
27. Schubert, Peter (1999). Modal Counterpoint, Renaissance Style, p.132. ISBN 0-19-510912-0.
28. Richard Lawn, Jeffrey L. Hellmer (1996). Jazz: Theory and Practice, p.97-98. ISBN 978-0-88284-722-1.
29. Norman Carey (Spring, 2002). Untitled review: Harmonic Experience by W. A. Mathieu, p.125. Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 121–134.
30. Mathieu, quoted ibid.